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September 14, 2016

Annual Month-By-Month Crop Production Cycle for Argentina

Author: Michael Cordonnier/Soybean & Corn Advisor, Inc.

Below is the month-by-month crop production cycle for Argentina where I have listed the cropping sequence and the general weather patterns that can be expected for each month.

September

  • Sunflower planting underway in northern Argentina.
  • Corn planting begins in north-central Argentina and eastern Argentina and progresses southward depending on soil temperature.
  • Wheat is in vegetative development.
  • Temperatures in northern Argentina can be quite warm.
  • Temperatures in central Argentina warming up to 70's-80's, but cool spells still possible.
  • Rainfall is in the form of spring showers.

October

  • This is the main full-season corn-planting month, especially in central Argentina. Farmers like to plant their corn in two phases. The planting of the first phase is generally completed by the end of October, they then skip planting corn in November and resume planting in December.
  • Finish sunflower planting in northern Argentina, start sunflower planting in central and southern Argentina.
  • Begin early soybean planting in central Argentina.
  • Wheat is moving from vegetative development to flowering.
  • Temperatures warming up to the 80's or hotter.
  • Rainfall can be variable.

November

  • The first phase of corn planting complete in central Argentina.
  • Corn pollination starting for earliest planted corn.
  • Soybean planting in full swing.
  • Wheat moving from flowering to grain filling to maturity and early wheat harvest begins.
  • Double crop soybeans are planted after wheat is harvested.
  • Sunflowers are flowering.
  • Temperatures now at summertime levels, heat waves are possible.
  • Summertime rains usually become more common.

December

  • Second phase of corn planting underway in southern and northern Argentina.
  • Early planted corn pollinating in central Argentina.
  • Finish planting full season soybeans, planting double crop soybeans after wheat is harvested.
  • Early planted soybeans flowering and setting pods.
  • Most of the wheat is harvested by the end of the month.
  • Temperatures now approaching maximum summer highs.
  • Rainfall usually abundant, but can have dry spells.

January

  • Early planted corn filling grain and approaching maturity.
  • By end of month, some early corn and sunflowers are starting to be harvested.
  • Finish the second phase of corn planting by the end of the month.
  • Finish wheat harvest by early January.
  • Finish planting double crop soybeans by early January.
  • Full season soybeans flowering, setting pods, filling pods.
  • Maximum summer temperatures.
  • Summer rains are variable. If there is going to be a hot and dry period during the growing season, it will most likely occur during January. That is why farmers don't like to plant corn in November, because if they did, it would be pollinating in January.

February

  • More first phase corn and sunflowers now being harvested.
  • The corn planted during the second phase is entering pollination.
  • Full season soybeans setting and filling pods.
  • Double crop soybeans flowering.
  • Temperatures can still be very hot, but the temperatures start to cool off by the end of the month.
  • Normal summer rainfall. Rains may start to get lighter by the end of the month.

March

  • Harvest is in full swing for corn planted during the first phase of planting. Corn planted during the second phase is pollinating and filling grain.
  • Main month for soybean pod filling.
  • Harvest begins for early maturing soybeans.
  • Temperatures are starting to recede from their summer highs.
  • Rainfall getting lighter.

April

  • Harvesting the first phase corn is wrapping up.
  • Corn planted during the second phase is filling grain and maturing.
  • Full season soybean harvest in full swing.
  • Double crop soybeans are filling pods and maturing.
  • Start to plant winter small grain crops by the end of the month.
  • Temperatures cooling to "fall-like" levels.
  • Rainfall is variable, but during the last couple of years, there has been a lot of rain at this time. In April of 2015, there were historic floods in parts of central Argentina.

May

  • Harvesting starts for the corn planted during the second phase.
  • Finish harvesting full season soybeans.
  • Harvesting double crop soybeans underway.
  • Main month for planting winter small grains.
  • Temperatures continue cooling.
  • Rainfall is variable, might even be some "frozen" precipitation.

June-July-August

  • This is the "winter season" in Argentina.
  • Temperatures in northern Argentina are pleasant, temperatures in central Argentina are cool and frosts can be common, temperatures in southern Argentina are cold with some light snow possible.
  • Winter rains/snow can occur at any time.
  • Finish planting winter small grain crops in June.
  • Finish harvesting double crop soybeans in June.
  • Farmers are actively marketing their grain and watching for selling opportunities due to potential weather problems in the U.S.
  • Farmers are making plans for the next growing season and purchasing their inputs.
  • By the end of August early "spring-like" temperatures starting to return.